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Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (* Oktober als Margaret Hilda Roberts in Arrow, London , S. f.; Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins, London , S. Peter Hennessy: The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders since Penguin, London , S. ff. Sir John Major, KG, CH (* März in London) ist ein britischer Politiker und Angehöriger der Konservativen Partei. Vom November bis 2. Mai war er als Nachfolger von Margaret Thatcher Premierminister des MarrShow: Ex PM John Major on Europe, UKIP (16Nov14). In: YouTube. November ​. Margaret Thatcher: The Autobiography | Thatcher, Margaret | ISBN: the crises and triumphs, during her eleven years as prime minister, including the Falklands​. In Margaret Thatcher became the first woman British Prime Minister. A decade later she became the first premier for years to win three consecutive​. Conservative Government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Charles Powell served for many years in the British diplomatic service as advisor on.

Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm

Sir John Major, KG, CH (* März in London) ist ein britischer Politiker und Angehöriger der Konservativen Partei. Vom November bis 2. Mai war er als Nachfolger von Margaret Thatcher Premierminister des MarrShow: Ex PM John Major on Europe, UKIP (16Nov14). In: YouTube. November ​. In Margaret Thatcher became the first woman British Prime Minister. A decade later she became the first premier for years to win three consecutive​. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (* Oktober als Margaret Hilda Roberts in Arrow, London , S. f.; Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years. HarperCollins, London , S. Peter Hennessy: The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders since Penguin, London , S. ff.

The union tried an illegal secondary boycott and was fined in court, losing all its assets which had been used for pensions. In the next two years Britain's national newspapers opened new plants and abandoned Fleet Street, adopting the new technology with far fewer employees.

They had even more reason to support Thatcherism. Thatcher's political and economic philosophy emphasised reduced state intervention, free markets , and entrepreneurialism.

Since gaining power, she had experimented in selling off a small nationalised company, the National Freight Company, to its workers, with a surprisingly positive response.

One critic on the left dismissed privatisation as "the biggest electoral bribe in history". Many people took advantage of share offers, although many sold their shares immediately for a quick profit and therefore the proportion of shares held by individuals rather than institutions did not increase.

The policy of privatisation , while anathema to many on the left, has become synonymous with Thatcherism and was also followed by Tony Blair 's government.

Wider share-ownership and council house sales became known as "popular" capitalism to its supporters a description coined by John Redwood. In February , in what was generally viewed as a significant snub from the centre of the British establishment, [60] the University of Oxford voted to refuse Thatcher an honorary degree in protest against her cuts in funding for higher education.

In December Thatcher was criticised from another former Tory bastion when the Church of England report Faith in the City blamed decay of the inner cities on the Government's financial stringency and called for a redistribution of wealth.

However the Government had already introduced special employment and training measures, [66] and ministers dismissed the report as "muddle-headed" and uncosted.

Soon after, Thatcher suffered her government's only defeat in the House of Commons, with the failure of the Shops Bill The bill, which would have legalised Sunday shopping , was defeated by a Christian right backbench rebellion, with 72 Conservatives voting against the Government Bill.

Thatcher's preference for defence ties with the United States was demonstrated in the Westland affair when, despite ostensibly maintaining a neutral stance, she and Trade and Industry Secretary Leon Brittan allowed the helicopter manufacturer Westland , a vital defence contractor, to link with the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation of the United States.

Defence Secretary Michael Heseltine had organised a consortium of European and British firms, including the Italian firm Agusta , to make a rival bid.

He claimed that Thatcher had prevented proper discussion by cancelling a promised meeting of the Cabinet Economic Affairs Committee early in December Cabinet eventually 19 December forbade any minister from actively campaigning for either option.

Thatcher thought Heseltine too powerful and popular a figure to sack. Heseltine resigned and walked out of the meeting in protest, claiming that Thatcher had broken the conventions of Cabinet government.

He remained an influential critic and potential leadership challenger, and would eventually prove instrumental in Thatcher's fall in Brittan was then forced to resign for having, earlier that month and with the agreement of Thatcher's press adviser Bernard Ingham , ordered the leak of a confidential legal letter critical of Heseltine.

For a time Thatcher's survival as Prime Minister seemed in doubt, but her personal involvement in the leak remained unproven and she survived after a poor debating performance in the Commons 27 January by Opposition Leader Neil Kinnock.

The GLC was the biggest council in Europe ; under the leadership of the Labour socialist Ken Livingstone it had doubled its spending in three years, and Thatcher insisted on its abolition as an efficiency measure, transferring most duties to the boroughs, with veto power over major building, engineering and maintenance projects being given to the environment secretary.

The GLC also warned that the break-up of the county councils would lead to the creation of "endless joint committees and over 60 quangos". During the s there was a great improvement in the United Kingdom's productivity growth relative to other advanced capitalist countries.

The United Kingdom's growth rate was more impressive, ranking first in the OECD in , a statistical achievement that Thatcher and her government exploited to the full in the general election campaign of that year.

On the early morning of 12 October , the day before her 59th birthday, Thatcher escaped injury in the Brighton hotel bombing during the Conservative Party Conference when the hotel was bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.

A prominent member of the Cabinet, Norman Tebbit , was injured, and his wife Margaret was left paralysed. Thatcher herself escaped assassination by sheer luck.

She insisted that the conference open on time the next day and made her speech as planned in defiance of the bombers, a gesture which won widespread approval across the political spectrum.

The agreement was greeted with fury by Northern Irish unionists. The Ulster Unionists and Democratic Unionists made an electoral pact and on 23 January , staged an ad-hoc referendum by resigning their seats and contesting the subsequent by-elections, losing only one, to the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party SDLP.

However, unlike the Sunningdale Agreement of , they found they could not bring the agreement down by a general strike. This was another effect of the changed balance of power in industrial relations.

In a decision that came under heavy attack from the Labour Party, American forces were permitted by Thatcher to station nuclear cruise missiles at British bases, arousing mass protests by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

A critical factor was Thatcher's idea that Mikhail Gorbachev was the key to the solution. She convinced Reagan that he was "a man we can do business with.

The treaty did not cover sea-launched missiles of the sort Britain possessed. By May , after on-site investigations by both sides, missiles had been destroyed.

In the aftermath of a series of terrorist attacks on US military personnel in Europe, which were believed to have been executed at Colonel Gaddafi 's command, President Reagan decided to carry out a bombing raid on Libya.

Both France and Spain refused to allow US aircraft to fly over their territory for the raid. Thatcher herself had earlier expressed opposition to "retaliatory strikes that are against international law" and had not followed the US in an embargo of Libyan oil.

However Thatcher felt that as the US had given support to Britain during the Falklands and that America was a major ally against a possible Soviet attack in Western Europe, she felt obliged to allow US aircraft to use bases situated in Britain.

Later that year in America, President Reagan persuaded Congress to approve of an extradition treaty which closed a legal loophole by which IRA members and Volunteers escaped extradition by claiming their killings were political acts.

This had been previously opposed by Irish-Americans for years but was passed after Reagan used Thatcher's support in the Libyan raid as a reason to pass it.

Grenada was a former colony and current independent Commonwealth nation under the Queen. The British government exercised no authority there and did not object when Maurice Bishop took control in a coup in In October he was overthrown by dissident Marxists, and killed.

This alarmed other small countries in the region who had a regional defence organisation, the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States OECS which formally asked the United States for help in removing the new regime.

Reagan promptly agreed, and almost overnight ordered a major invasion of Grenada. He notified Thatcher a few hours before the invasion, but he did not ask her consent.

She was privately highly annoyed, but in cabinet and in Parliament she announced that Britain supported the Americans, saying "We stand by the United States".

Thatcher resisted international pressure to impose economic sanctions on South Africa , where the United Kingdom was the biggest foreign investor and principal trading partner.

This meant that the status quo remained the same, and British companies continued to operate in South Africa, although other European countries continued trading to a lesser degree.

According to Geoffrey Howe , one of her closest allies, Thatcher regarded the ANC , which fought to end apartheid, as a "typical terrorist organisation", as late as At the end of March , four South Africans were arrested in Coventry, remanded in custody, and charged with contravening the UN arms embargo , which prohibited exports to South Africa of military equipment.

Thatcher took a personal interest in the Coventry Four , and 10 Downing Street requested daily summaries of the case from the prosecuting authority, HM Customs and Excise.

In June , Thatcher received a visit from P. Botha , the first South African premier to come to Britain since his nation had left the Commonwealth in Thatcher defended Botha's visit as an encouragement to reform, [93] but he ignored her concern over Mandela's continued detainment, [91] and although a new constitution brought coloured people of mixed race and Indians into a tricameral assembly, 22 million blacks continued to be excluded from the representation.

In July , Thatcher, citing the support of Helen Suzman , a South African anti-apartheid MP, reaffirmed her belief that economic sanctions against Pretoria would be immoral because they would make thousands of black workers unemployed; instead she characterised industry as the instrument that was breaking down apartheid.

Thatcher's opposition to economic sanctions was challenged by visiting anti-apartheid activists, including South African bishop Desmond Tutu , whom she met in London, and Oliver Tambo , exiled leader of the outlawed ANC guerrilla movement, [] whose links to the Soviet bloc she viewed with suspicion, [] and whom she declined to see because he espoused violence and refused to condemn guerrilla attacks and mob killings of black policemen, local officials and their families.

At a Commonwealth summit in Nassau in October , Thatcher agreed to impose limited sanctions and to set up a contact group to promote a dialogue with Pretoria, [] after she was warned by Third World leaders, including Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad , that her opposition threatened to break up the nation Commonwealth.

In Thatcher visited China with a view to resolve the difficulties that would inevitably be encountered as the New Territories were due to be returned to the Chinese in Under the terms of the agreement, China was obliged to leave Hong Kong's economic status unchanged after the handover on 1 July , for a period of at least fifty years.

She famously declared at the summit: "We are not asking the Community or anyone else for money. We are simply asking to have our own money back".

This still remains in effect, although Tony Blair later agreed to significantly reduce the size of the rebate.

It periodically causes political controversy among the members of the European Union. Bell , France and Britain, — the long separation , , p.

Thatcher, like many Britons, had long been fascinated by the idea of a tunnel under the English Channel linking to France.

By the s circumstances had changed radically. The British Empire collapsed and the Suez crisis made clear that Britain was no longer a superpower, and had to depend on its military allies on the continent.

Labour was worried that a tunnel would bring new workers and lower wage rates. Britain's prestige, security and wealth now seemed safest when tied closely to the continent.

Thatcher and Mitterrand agreed on the project and set up study groups. Mitterrand as a socialist said the French government would pay its share.

Thatcher insisted on private financing for the British share, and the City assured her that private enterprise was eager to fund it.

Final decisions were announced in January Thatcher led her party to a landslide victory in the general election with a seat majority. He was weakened by his party's commitment to unilateral nuclear disarmament at a time Thatcher was helping to end the Cold War.

Fleet Street the national newspapers mostly supported her and were rewarded with regular press briefings by her press secretary, Bernard Ingham.

Despite her third straight victory she remained a polarising figure. Hatred from the far left motivated scores of songs that "expressed anger, amusement, defiance and ridicule" towards her.

In , Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson reacted to a market fall with a reflationary budget, stoking inflation and precipitating a slide in the Government's fortunes.

Overall, the economic record of Thatcher's government is disputed. In relative terms, it could be held there was a modest revival of British fortunes.

Real gross domestic product had grown by However under Thatcherite management the macro-economy was unstable, even by the standards of the Keynesian era of stop-go.

The amplitude of fluctuations in gross domestic product and real gross private non-residential fixed capital formation was greater in the United Kingdom than for the OECD.

Though an early backer of decriminalisation of male homosexuality , at the Conservative Party conference Thatcher's speech read: "Children who need to be taught to respect traditional moral values are being taught that they have an inalienable right to be gay ".

Backbench Conservative MPs and peers had already begun a backlash against the "promotion" of homosexuality and, in December , the controversial " Section 28 " was added as an amendment to what became the Local Government Act Thatcher, a trained chemist, became publicly concerned with environmental issues in the late s.

At Bruges, Belgium , in , Thatcher made a speech in which she outlined her opposition to proposals from the European Community for a federal structure and increasing centralisation of decision-making.

Although she had supported British membership, Thatcher believed that the role of the EC should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that new EC regulations would reverse the changes she was making in the UK, stating that she had "not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain" only to see her reforms undermined by "a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels".

In —88 Chancellor Nigel Lawson had been following a policy of "shadowing the deutschmark", i. Thatcher's popularity once again declined.

At the meeting, they both threatened they would resign if their demands were not met. Lawson resigned that October, feeling that Thatcher had undermined him.

Thatcher continued to be the leading international advocate of a policy of contact with apartheid South Africa , [] and the most forthright opponent of economic sanctions against the country, which was ruled by a white minority government.

Rejecting the US policy of disinvestment as a mistake, she argued a prosperous society would be more receptive to change.

In October , Thatcher said she would be unlikely to visit South Africa unless black nationalist leader Nelson Mandela was released from prison, [] and in March she stressed the need to release him in order for multi-party talks to take place, [] urging that the African National Congress 's promise to suspend violence should be enough to permit his release, and that the "renunciation of violence" should not be an absolute condition for negotiations for a settlement.

Thatcher met reformist F. Thatcher, therefore, welcomed de Klerk's decision in February to release Mandela and lift the ban on the ANC, and said the change vindicated her positive policy: "We believe in carrots as well as sticks".

Thatcher said the European Community's voluntary ban on new investment should be lifted when Mandela was released.

My release from prison was the direct result of the people inside and outside South Africa. It was also the result of the immense pressure exerted on the South African Government by the international community, in particular from the people of the UK.

Thatcher's opposition to sanctions left her isolated within the Commonwealth and the European Community, and Mandela did not take up an early offer to meet her, [] opposing her proposed visit to his country as premature.

Mandela delayed meeting Thatcher until he had gathered support for sanctions from other world leaders in the course of a four-week, nation tour of Europe and the United States.

The NATO nations or in general agreement on delicately handling the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in , the reunification of Germany in —91, and the end of communism and the Soviet Union in There was no gloating or effort to humiliate Gorbachev.

Bush wanted to make NATO more of a political than a military alliance, Thatcher, spoke out for the importance of the military role.

Bush said: "Margaret still feared the worst from reunification and, like Mitterrand, worried that the Germans might "go neutral" and refuse to permit stationing nuclear weapons on their soil.

In the event, Germany was reunited and there was no neutralisation. Thatcher pushed President Bush to take strong military action in reversing Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in , to which she sent over 45, troops.

In the following year, they saw combat under her successor John Major in Operation Granby. As Meyer was a virtually unknown backbench MP, he was viewed as a " stalking horse " candidate for more prominent members of the party.

Thatcher easily defeated Meyer's challenge, but there were sixty ballot papers either cast for Meyer or abstaining, a surprisingly large number for a sitting Prime Minister.

Her supporters in the Party, however, viewed the results as a success, claiming that after ten years as Prime Minister and with approximately Conservative MPs voting, the opposition was surprisingly small.

Thatcher was fiercely committed to a new tax—commonly called the "poll tax"—that would apply in equal amounts to rich and poor alike, despite intense public opposition.

Her inability to compromise undermined her leadership in the Conservative Party, which turned decisively against her. Thatcher sought to relieve what she considered the unfair burden of property tax on the property owning section of the population, and outlined a fundamental solution as her flagship policy in the Conservative manifesto for the election.

Local government rates taxes were replaced by the community charge, popularly known as the "poll tax", which levied a flat rate on all adult residents.

She defended the poll tax, firstly, on the principle of marginality, that all voters should bear the burden of extra spending by local councils, and, secondly, on the benefit principle, that burdens should be proportional to benefits received.

The poll tax was introduced in Scotland in and in England and Wales in This highly visible redistribution of the tax burden onto the less well-off proved to be one of the most contentious policies of Thatcher's premiership.

Additional problems emerged when many of the tax rates set by local councils proved to be much higher than earlier predicted. Opponents organised to resist bailiffs and disrupt court hearings of community charge debtors.

An indication of the unpopularity of the policy was given by a Gallup poll in March that put Labour Unrest mounted and culminated in a number of riots.

The most serious of these happened on 31 March , during a protest at Trafalgar Square , London. More than , protesters attended and more than people were arrested.

Constitutional commentators concluded from the tax fiasco that "the British state [became] dangerously centralised, to an extent that important policy developments can now no longer be properly debated".

Following Thatcher's departure, her former chancellor Nigel Lawson labelled the poll tax as "the one great blunder of the Thatcher years".

The succeeding Major government announced the abolition of the tax in spring and in replaced it with Council Tax , a banded property tax similar in many respects to the older system of rates.

Lawlessness seemed to have paid off". Thatcher's political "assassination" was, according to witnesses such as Alan Clark , one of the most dramatic episodes in British political history.

Moreover, the Prime Minister's distaste for "consensus politics" and willingness to override colleagues' opinions, including that of her Cabinet, emboldened the backlash against her when it did occur.

On 1 November , Sir Geoffrey Howe , one of Thatcher's oldest allies and longest-serving Cabinet member, resigned from his position as Deputy Prime Minister in protest at Thatcher's open hostility both to moves towards European federalism and to her own government's policy advocating a "hard ecu", i.

In his resignation speech in the House of Commons two weeks later, he likened having to negotiate against what he called the "background noise" of her rhetoric to trying to play cricket despite the team captain having broken her own team's bats.

He ended by suggesting that the time had come for "others to consider their own response to the tragic conflict of loyalties" with which he stated that he had wrestled "for perhaps too long".

Though she initially stated that she intended to contest the second ballot, most of Thatcher's Cabinet colleagues offered her at best lukewarm support and many warned her that she would very likely lose a second ballot to Heseltine.

On 22 November, at just after 9. Shortly afterwards, her staff made public what was, in effect, her resignation statement, in which she stated that she had "concluded that the unity of the Party and the prospects of victory in a General Election would be better served" if she stood down as Prime Minister.

Neil Kinnock , Leader of the Opposition, proposed a motion of no confidence in the Government, and Margaret Thatcher seized the opportunity this presented on the day of her resignation to deliver one of her most memorable performances.

Among other quips, she famously noted: "a single currency is about the politics of Europe, it is about a federal Europe by the back door.

So I shall consider the proposal of the Honourable Member for Bolsover [that she be the first governor of the new European Central Bank]. Now where were we?

I am enjoying this". She supported John Major as her successor and, after he had won the leadership contest, she formally resigned as Prime Minister on 28 November.

In the years to come her approval of Major would fall away. She "all but shunned" the House of Commons after losing power, and gave no clue as to her future plans.

Altogether, the eleven-year duration of her three terms in office make up the third to have outlasted a decade from start to finish, following Robert Walpole in the s and William Pitt in the s.

Despite her electoral success in accumulating tens of millions of votes throughout Great Britain, only in Southern England and the Midlands did she ever win a majority of the popular vote.

Thatcher had broadened her interest in foreign policy when she became party leader, and would work with five foreign secretaries— Peter Carington —82 , Francis Pym —83 , Geoffrey Howe —89 , John Major and finally Douglas Hurd — As Prime Minister, she cautiously moved closer to the European Community and tried to slow world condemnation of South Africa.

Having long denounced Soviet Communism, she escalated her attacks when it invaded Afghanistan. Since the death of Margaret Thatcher in , several government documents relating to her premiership have been declassified and released by the National Archives.

These include:. Papers released in December show that Thatcher completely disapproved of GCSEs which, in , Sir Keith Joseph was trying to introduce in the face of fierce opposition from teaching unions.

At very least she wanted a 2-year delay to ensure rigorous syllabuses and adequate teacher training. However, when the unions who had been involved in a pay dispute for 2 years further criticised reforms at their conference, Joseph persuaded her to go ahead immediately to avoid appearing to take their side.

According to Dominic Cummings, special advisor to Michael Gove , it was a catastrophic decision which led to a collapse in the integrity of the exam system.

In July Thatcher called for research on the use of biological weapons against cocaine producers in Peru, in the context of the feared crack cocaine epidemic among black British people.

Carolyn Sinclair, a policy adviser, suggested that Thatcher proceed cautiously in working with black communities because she believed they gave cannabis to babies.

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University of California Press. Britain and Germany in the Twentieth Century. Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain.

The Battle for the Falklands. Macmillan published Conflict of Loyalty. Visions Before Midnight. The Grand Experiment: Mrs.

Thatcher's Economy and How It Spread. Westview Press. Politics UK. Pearson Education. Professors World Peace Academy.

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Presidents of the European Council. Van Rompuy Tusk Michel. Fellows of the Royal Society elected in Cold War. Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race.

Gar Alperovitz Thomas A. Cull Willem Drees Robert D. Matlock Jr. Thomas J. Painter William B. Pickett Ronald E.

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Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm Video

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Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm Video

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Manufacturing continued to decline. Thatcher's government attempted to reduce the power of local councils, which had been the means of delivery of many social services.

As part of this effort, the Greater London Council was abolished. In , Thatcher first met with Soviet reform leader Gorbachev.

He may have been drawn to meet with her because her close relationship with President Reagan made her an attractive ally.

Thatcher that same year survived an assassination attempt when the IRA bombed a hotel where a Conservative Party conference was held.

Her "stiff upper lip" in responding calmly and quickly added to her popularity and image. In and , Thatcher's confrontation with the coal miners union led to a year-long strike which the union eventually lost.

Thatcher used strikes in through as reasons to further restrict union power. In , the European Union was created.

Banking was affected by European Union rules, as German banks funded the East German economic rescue and revival.

Thatcher began to pull Britain back from European unity. Thatcher's defense minister Michael Heseltine resigned over her position.

Thatcher's response was to become even more radical. Privatization of nationalized industries provided a short-term gain for the treasury, as the stock was sold to the public.

Similar short-term gains were realized by selling state-owned housing to occupants, transforming many to private owners.

A attempt to establish a poll tax was highly controversial, even within the Conservative Party. This was a flat rate tax, also called the community charge, with every citizen paying the same amount, with some rebates for the poor.

The flat rate tax would replace property taxes which were based on the value of property owned. Local councils were given the power to levy the poll tax; Thatcher hoped that popular opinion would force these rates to be lower, and end Labour Party domination of the councils.

Demonstrations against the poll tax in London and elsewhere sometimes turned violent. She continued to try to fight inflation through high interest rates, despite continued problems with high unemployment.

A worldwide economic downturn aggravated economic problems for Britain. Conflict within the Conservative Party increased.

Thatcher was not grooming a successor, though in she had become the prime minister with the longest continuous term in the UK's history since the early 19th century.

By that time, not a single other cabinet member from , when she was first elected, was still serving. Several, including Geoffrey Howe, the party's deputy leader, resigned in and over her policies.

In November of , Margaret Thatcher's position as head of the party was challenged by Michael Heseltine, and thus a vote was called.

Others joined the challenge. When Thatcher saw that she had failed on the first ballot, though none of her challengers won, she resigned as party head.

John Major, who had been a Thatcherite, was elected in her place as prime minister. Margaret Thatcher had been prime minister for 11 years and days.

The month after Thatcher's defeat, Queen Elizabeth II, with whom Thatcher had met weekly during her time as prime minister, appointed Thatcher a member of the exclusive Order of Merit, replacing the recently deceased Laurence Olivier.

She granted Denis Thatcher a hereditary baronetcy, the last such title granted to anyone outside the royal family. Margaret Thatcher founded the Thatcher Foundation to continue to work for her radically conservative economic vision.

She continued to travel and lecture, both within Britain and internationally. A regular theme was her criticism of the European Union's centralized power.

Mark, one of the Thatcher twins, married in His wife was an heiress from Dallas, Texas. In , the birth of Mark's first child made Margaret Thatcher a grandmother.

His daughter was born in In , Margaret Thatcher announced she would no longer run for her seat in Finchley. That year, she was made a life peer as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven, and thus served in the House of Lords.

Margaret Thatcher worked on her memoirs in retirement. In she published The Downing Street Years to tell her own story about her years as prime minister.

In , she published The Path to Power , to detail her own early life and early political career, before becoming prime minister. Both books were best-sellers.

Carol Thatcher published a biography of her father, Denis Thatcher, in In , Margaret Thatcher had several small strokes and gave up her lecture tours.

She also published that year another book: Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World. Denis Thatcher survived a heart-bypass operation in early , seeming to make a full recovery.

The Nation. London, UK. Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 8 August US Department of State.

Archived from the original on 22 September Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 7 July — via the Margaret Thatcher Foundation.

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Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 13 November Her 'freer, more promiscuous version of capitalism' in Hugo Young 's phrase is reaping a darker harvest.

Thatcher is a mixed bag". London School of Economics. Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 18 May Retrieved 17 May The Herald.

STV Player. Retrieved 26 June Political Science Resources. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 19 March UK Parliament. Retrieved 21 March Broadcast 12 June BBC History.

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British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 9 February Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 16 December Parliament and Constitution Centre.

Archived from the original PDF on 27 December Retrieved 27 February — via House of Commons Library. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 11 September Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 23 April Since he was now a baronet, might she care to be known as Lady Thatcher?

Rare Historical Photos. Retrieved 9 October Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Retrieved 19 July The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 June Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 20 July The Washington Times.

Retrieved 22 April Main article: Bibliography of Margaret Thatcher. Adeney, Martin; Lloyd, John Notes and Records.

Margaret Thatcher: Power and Personality. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Psychology Press.

London, UK: Junction Books. Maggie and Me. Cambridge University Press. Faber and Faber. New York City: Dodd Mead.

Burns, William E. A Brief History of Great Britain. The British General Election of Palgrave Macmillan. British Political Facts — Byrd, Peter, ed. British Foreign Policy under Thatcher.

Martin's Press. Margaret Thatcher: The Grocer's Daughter. Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady. Random House. Freeman, David ed. Penguin Books.

Cannadine, David Childs, David Britain since A Political History. University of Michigan Press published Cork University Press published Contemporary British History.

Re-examining the Conservative Leadership Contest". British Journal of Political Science. The Public Perspective : 15— Archived from the original PDF on 5 January The Margaret Thatcher Book of Quotations.

Simon and Schuster. Oxford University Press published Thatcher and Thatcherism. Routledge published Wallflower Press.

Feminism and Politics: A Comparative Perspective. University of California Press. Britain and Germany in the Twentieth Century. Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain.

The Battle for the Falklands. Macmillan published Conflict of Loyalty. Visions Before Midnight. The Grand Experiment: Mrs. Thatcher's Economy and How It Spread.

Westview Press. Politics UK. Pearson Education. Professors World Peace Academy. Troubador published Health Affairs. Cold War History. The View from No.

Bantam Books. A history of British Trade Unionism, c. Stroud, UK: Alan Sutton. A History of Modern Britain. Pan Books published Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Economics for Business: Competition, Macro-stability, and Globalisation. FT Press. Penguin Books published Margaret Thatcher: From Grantham to the Falklands.

Knopf Group. Margaret Thatcher: Everything She Wants. Margaret Thatcher: Herself Alone. Neville, Leigh The SAS — New Scientist. Ogden, Chris Historical Dictionary of the Contemporary United Kingdom.

Scottish Journal of Political Economy. Women's History Review. Archived from the original on 13 June Edinburgh University Press.

Understanding the Global Economy. Peace Education Books. Making Economic Sense. Ludwig von Mises Institute published De-Industrialization and Foreign Trade.

CUP Archive. British Contemporary History. Britain under Thatcher. Blair's Britain, — Senden, Linda Soft Law in European Community Law.

Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. Battles of the Falklands War. Ian Allan. International Affairs. Atlantic Books. Thornton, Richard C.

Trafford published House of Lords: Archived from the original PDF on 29 May Developments in British Politics. Britishness since Twentieth Century British History.

Hong Kong: China's Challenge. Gorbachev: The Man and the System. Transaction published Margaret Thatcher at Wikipedia's sister projects.

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Sir Geoffrey Howe — Her first 2 years in office were not easy - unemployment was very high, but the economy gradually showed improvement.

She brought more of her supporters into the Cabinet, and added to her reputation by leading the country to war against Argentina in the Falkland Islands.

The Conservatives went on to win the election by an overwhelming majority, helped by a divided opposition. Her government followed a radical programme of privatisation and deregulation, reform of the trade unions, tax cuts and the introduction of market mechanisms into health and education.

The aim was to reduce the role of government and increase individual self-reliance. She also became a familiar figure internationally, creating a famous friendship with US President Reagan and gaining the praise of Soviet leader Gorbachev.

One great difficulty during her time in office was the issue of Europe. His resignation speech brought about events which were to lead to her exit from 10 Downing Street later that month.

Michael Heseltine challenged her for the leadership, and while he failed to win, he gained votes — enough to make it evident that a crucial minority favoured a change.

Thatcher was eventually persuaded not to go forward to the second ballot, which was won by her Chancellor of the Exchequer, John Major.

She left the House of Commons in , and was appointed a life peerage in the House of Lords in the same year, receiving the title of Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven.

Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelinesplease consider modifying the lead to Parfum Casino an Aon Stock Quote overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a concise version of the article. Thatcher reacted to this by branding the Labour government "chickens", and Liberal Party leader David Steel joined in, criticising Labour for "running scared". Margaret put her children in boarding school. Thatcher expected a major confrontation, planned ahead for one, and avoided trouble before she was ready. Where there is discord, may we bring harmony; Where there is error, may we bring truth; Where there is doubt, may we bring faith; And where there is despair, may we bring Neue Apps Android Kostenlos.

Margaret Thatcher Years As Pm - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Britische Unterhauswahl April in London war eine britische Staatsfrau und konservative Politikerin. Her presence elevates its status to that of state funeral in all but name. Der Sieg im Falklandkrieg brachte Thatcher einen enormen Popularitätsschub. The Witch Is Dead misses number one spot. Reagans SDI-Programm stand Thatcher ebenfalls distanziert gegenüber; einerseits die Vorteile sehend, war sie andererseits eine ausgesprochene Befürworterin der atomaren Abschreckung.

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